Monthly Archives: settembre 2014

5 Alternatives of PuTTY

monitorPuTTy is the most popular SSH clients for windows. Its very small is size and easy use. Most of people in Linux world prefer to use putty. But they are aware that there are many tools available to provides many features which putty doesn’t have. I have used many ssh clients and adding 5 Alternatives of PuTTY client below which i found better. I hope you will get some experience with them

1. MobaXterm

MobaXterm is an advanced terminal for Windows with an X11 server, It provides tabbed SSH client and many of other networking tools for remote computing. MobaXterm provides all the essential Unix commands to Windows desktop, in a single portable executable file which works out of the box.

[ Download or Buy MobaXterm ]
2. KiTTY

KiTTY is a fork from version 0.63 of PuTTY, the best telnet / SSH client in the world. KiTTY is only designed for the Microsoft Windows platform. For more information about the original software, or pre-compiled binaries on other systems, you can go to the Simon Tatham PuTTY page.

[ Download KiTTY ]
3. SecureCRT

SecureCRT combines rock-solid terminal emulation with the strong encryption, broad range of authentication options, and data integrity of the Secure Shell protocol for secure network administration and end user access.

[ Download SecureCRT ]
4. Xshell 4

Xshell is a powerful terminal emulator that supports SSH, SFTP, TELNET, RLOGIN and SERIAL. It delivers industry leading performance and feature sets that are not available in its free alternatives.

[ Download or Buy Xshell 4 ]
5. Bitvise SSH Client

Bitvise SSH Client is used to initiate connections to SSH servers. It is usually used interactively, so it will only run when a user runs it, but it can also be launched unattended to run scripted commands or file transfers, or to maintain an SSH connection for port forwarding. The SSH client is used to access a terminal console on an SSH server, to initiate port forwarding, or to initiate file transfers to and from SSH servers using SFTP.

[ Download Bitvise SSH Client ]

x2Go per accesso a PC da remoto

x2goX2Go è un valido applicativo per l’accesso remoto che si fa particolarmente apprezzare per l’elevata fluidità. Per beneficiare della versione più recente disponibile è bene installare l’applicativo a partire dallo specifico ppa (personal package archive ) per x2Go stable.Esso è un sistema che si basa sulla tecnologia NX (la stessa in sui si basa anche NoMachine) che disponibile di diverse funzionalità come le ottimizzazioni per i principali ambienti desktop Linux e “X2Go desktop sharing” funzionalità con la quale potremo accedere ad una sessione desktop già presistente oppure cups-x2go per la gestione del server di stampa da remoto, lightdm-remote-session-x2go per operare in LightDM ecc


sudo add-apt-repository ppa:x2go/stable
sudo apt-get update

L’installazione di x2goserver-xsession massimizza la compatibilità delle applicazioni cosentendo a x2Go di lanciare qualsiasi utility specificata in /etc/X11/Xsession.d , come un X11 display locale e un XDMCP display.

Consenguente per installare il server x2go

sudo apt-get install x2goserver x2goserver-xsession

Il traffico viene inoltrato via tunnel SSH. Non è necessario l’avvio di demoni l’ “X server” di x2Go vien avviano on-demand quando si connette un client x2Go. Ovviamente una sessione rimane attiva se si preme la X per disconettersi. Le impostazioni si configutazione del server sono salvate in


E’ disponibile anche per Arch Linux, per maggiori informazioni consiglio di consultare la pagina dedicata dal Wiki di Arch Linux. client x2go

Per connettersi ad un server è necessario utilizzare lo specifico client multipiattaforma disponibile per windows, mac e linux

sudo apt-get install x2goclient

x2Go to access a PC remotely

X2Go is a useful application for remote access which is especially appreciated for its high fluidity. To benefit from the latest version available is advisable to install the application from the specific PPA (personal package archive) for x2Go stableThis is a system that is based on NX technology (the same is also based in the NoMachine), which provided several features such as optimizations for the major Linux desktop environments and “X2Go desktop sharing” feature with which we can access a desktop session already pre-existing or cups-x2go to manage the print server remotely, lightdm-remote-session-x2go to operate in LightDM etc.

sudo add-apt-repository ppa: x2go / stable
sudo apt-get update

The installation of x2goserver-xsession maximizes application compatibility cosentendo x2Go to launch any utility specified in /etc/X11/Xsession.d, as a local X11 display and XDMCP display.

Consenguente to install the server

sudo apt-get install x2goserver x2goserver-xsession

The traffic is forwarded via SSH tunnel. It is not necessary to enter into the demons’ “X server” to x2Go comes initiate on-demand when a client connects x2Go. Obviously a session remains active if you press the X to logout.

The settings are saved in the server configutazione


This is also available for Arch Linux, for more information please consult the relevant page from the Arch Linux Wiki.

client x2go

To connect to a server you must use the specific cross-platform client available for windows, mac and linux

sudo apt-get install x2goclient

for the use and configuration of the client refer to the following post

Understand PAM

stunningmesh-redhatPAM stands for Pluggable Authentication Modules.
It’s a mechanism used to define authentication policies.
If you go to the /etc/pam.d directory, you can find a lot of files, each linked to a different application.
Let’s take the /etc/pam.d/halt file as a first example:

auth       sufficient
auth       required
#auth       include     system-auth
account    required

According to its name, this file is associated with the halt command.
Lines starting with a “#” character are comments.
Each other line is made of three parts: module interface, control flag and module name with zero or more arguments.
There are four types of module interfaces:

  • auth: this module interface is dedicated to the user authentication, normally done through a request for login and password. In addition, group membership and user environment are defined (definition of home directory localization and mounting points, etc).
  • session: this module interface builds the user environment and removes it at the end of the connection. For example, a login message is written into the system log. A call to the Automounter can also be made.
  • account: this module interface defines access control (days and hours where access is denied, account expiration, password change policy, etc).
  • password: this module interface is only used for password update.

A module can provide any or all of the module interfaces.

There are five main control flags:

  • requisite: a module flagged as requisite must succeed, otherwise failure is instantly reported.
  • required: a module marked as required must succeed too, but other modules are still executed. The purpose is to hide the name of the failing module.
  • sufficient: a module defined as sufficient is enough to report success unless a module marked as required has previously failed. If it fails, there is no consequences, the next module is invoked.
  • optional: a module noted as optional can fail or succeed, the result is ignored except if it’s the only module in the stack.
  • include: this control flag inserts the content of the file that follows it. This allows common behaviors to be put together and used as a subcomponent.

If we only keep the necessary lines, the file /etc/pam.d/halt becomes:

auth       sufficient
auth       required
account    required

This can be translated into the following policy:

  • to be allowed to halt the server, you need either to be root ( checks that UID is 0) or to be connected at the console ( checks that).
  • the last line is only there to allow the execution of the halt command.